Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a significant burden on healthcare, and unmet need remains

References

  1. Benjamin EJ, et al. Circulation. 2019;139:e56-e528.
  2. Cook C, et al. Int J Cardiol. 2014;171:368-376.
  3. Ponikowski P, et al. ESC Heart Fail. 2014;1:4-25.
  4. Savarese G, et al. Card Fail Rev. 2017;3:7-11.
  5. Cowie MR, et al. ESC Heart Fail. 2014;1:110-145.
  6. James SL, et al. Lancet. 2018;392:1789-1858.
  7. Heidenreich PA, et al. Circ Heart Fail. 2013;6:606-619.
  8. Bahit MC, et al. JACC Heart Fail. 2018;6:179-186.
  9. Gerber Y, et al. Circ Heart Fail. 2016;1:e002460. doi:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.115.002460
  10. American Heart Association/RTI International. Projections of cardiovascular disease prevalence and costs: 2015–2035. November 2016.
  11. Adams KF, et al. Am Heart J. 2005;149:209-216.
  12. Chen J, et al. JAMA. 2011;306:1669-1678.
  13. Dunlay SM, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54:1695-1702.
  14. Mesquita ET, et al. Int J Cardiovasc Sco. 2017;30:81-90.
  15. Kemp CD, et al. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2012;21:365-371.
  16. Ma TK, et al. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:1273-1292.
  17. Hasenfuss G, et al. Pathophysiology of heart failure. Zipes DP, et al, eds. In: Braunwald’s Heart Disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Inc; 2019;442-461.
  18. Ambrosy AP, et al. Eur J Heart Fail. 2013;34:835-843.
  19. Arrigo M, et al. Eur Heart J Sup. 2016;18:G11-G18.
  20. Guglin M, et al. Int J Clin Pract. 2012;66:1224-1229.
  21. Kitzman DW, et al. Cardiol Clin. 2011;29:461-477.
  22. Nilsson KR, et al. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2008;4:92-100.
  23. Jaarsma T, et al. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2010;4:233-237.
  24. Rumsfeld JS, et al. Circulation. 2013;127:2233-2249.
  25. Ambrosy AP, et al. Euro Heart J. 2016;18:306-313.
  26. Gnanasakthy A, et al. Value Health. 2017;20:420-429.
  27. Green CP, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35:1245-1255.
  28. Joseph SM, et al. Circ Heart Fail. 2013;6:1139-1146.
  29. Kosiborod M, et al. Circulation. 2007;115:1975-1981.
  30. Gallagher AM, et al. ESC Heart Fail. 2019;6:3-9.
  31. Reddy YNV, et al. Eur J Heart. 2019;0:1-17.
  32. Basuray A, et al. Circulation. 2014;129:2380-2387.
  33. Florea VG, et al. Circ Heart Fail. 2016;9:e003123. doi:10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.116.003123
  34. Lucas C, et al. Am Heart J. 2000;140:840-847.
  35. Greene SJ, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;72:351-366.
  36. Steinman MA, et al. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother. 2010;8:583-594.
  37. Berthelot E, et al. Health Care: Current Rev. 2018;6. doi:10.4172/2375-4273.1000221
  38. Ferdinand KC, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;69:437-451.
  39. Hickling JA, et al. Br J Gen Pract. 2001;51:615-618.
  40. Yancy CW, et al. Circulation. 2013;128:e240-e327.
  41. Fonarow GC, et al. JAMA Cardiol. 2016;1:714-717.

The majority of patients with HFrEF remain symptomatic with treatment.31-33

Persistent congestion after hospitalization for HF predicts poor survival in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV HF patients.34

There is a lack of correlation between severity of symptoms and objective measures of HF (hemodynamics, ECG, laboratory tests, and reduced exercise tolerance)

Despite benefits of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT), a significant portion of eligible HFrEF patients remains untreated, and many patients do not receive recommended, evidence-based GDMT.35

Although NYHA class correlates with KCCQ score, high variability within each NYHA class demonstrates the limitations of using NYHA as the sole assessment of HRQoL

Confounding factors limit the ability to achieve GDMT goals.36

HRQoL measures like the KCCQ can provide patients with a tangible measure of how well their treatments are working

Early intervention with GDMT in patients with HFrEF improves outcomes.40

HRQoL and exercise capacity are important assessments for current standard management and outcome measures in HFrEF
References Back to Top