HFrEF Learning Center

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a significant burden on healthcare, and unmet need remains


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The vicious cycle of HFrEF leads to progressive decline.15

The pathophysiology of HFrEF induces organ dysfunction and clinical manifestations.19

There is a lack of correlation between severity of symptoms and objective measures of HF (hemodynamic, echocardiographic, laboratory, and reduced exercise tolerance).20

Decreased cardiac output causes skeletal muscle hypoperfusion, a potent stimulus for early anaerobic metabolism. Subsequent generation of muscle lactate and other metabolites produce the sensation of peripheral and central fatigue, which reduces exercise tolerance.21

HF is associated with skeletal muscle abnormalities that impair oxygen uptake and utilization and contribute to exercise intolerance.22

Progressive HFrEF leads to symptoms associated with HF, which affect patients’ functional status and HRQoL.23,24

Patients with HFrEF often have impaired HRQoL, which increases the complexity of care. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are becoming more accepted by regulatory agencies and are being incorporated in clinical trial designs.25,26 One such validated PRO is the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ).27

Worsening health status (categorized by the KCCQ score) = risk of death or hospitalization.28,29

HRQoL and exercise capacity are important assessments for current standard management and outcomes measures in HFrEF.30

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